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|Title:||Chemical and ecotoxicological effects of the use of drinking-water treatment residuals for the remediation of soils degraded by mining activities|
de Varennes, Amaŕilis D.A.
|Keywords:||Mine degraded soil|
Drinking-water treatment residuals
|Abstract:||The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of drinking-water treatment residuals (DWTR) in the amendment of a soil affected by mining activities (Aljustrel mine, Portuguese sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt), considering the effects on its chemical, biochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics. The DWTR had neutral characteristics (pH 6.7) and an organic matter (OM) content of 575 g kg-1 dry matter (DM), which makes them a potential amendment for the remediation of mine degraded soils, as they may correct soil acidity and reduce the extractable metal fraction. An incubation assay, with soil and DWTR, with or without lime, was carried out to test the doses to be used in the assisted-phytostabilization experiment. Based on the results obtained, the doses of DWTR used were the equivalent to 48, 96, and 144 t DM ha-1, with and without lime application (CaCO3 11 t DM ha-1). Agrostis tenuis Sibth was used as the test plant. Some amendments doses were able to improve soil characteristics (pH and OM content), to decrease metal extractability by 0.01 M CaCl2 (especially for Cu and Zn), and to allow plant growth, that did not occur in the non-amended soil. Copper, Pb and Zn concentrations in the plant material were lower than the maximum tolerable level for cattle feed, used as an indicator of risk of entry of those metals into the human food chain. The simultaneous application of DWTR (96 and 144 t ha-1), with lime, allowed a reduction in the mine soil ecotoxicity, as evaluated by some lethal and sub-lethal bioassays, including luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna acute immobilization test, mortality of Thamnocephalus platyurus, and 72-h growth inhibition of the green microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. However, DWTR were unable to increase soil microbial activity, evaluated by dehydrogenase activity, an important soil-health indicator. Also, OM content and NKjeldahl, concentrations increased slightly but remained low or very low (P and K extractable concentrations were not affected). In general, the bioassays highlighted a decrease in soil ecotoxicity with the presence of lime and DWTR (144 t DM ha-1). In conclusion, DWTR are recommended to amend acidic soils, with high concentrations of trace elements, but an additional application of organic or mineral fertilizers should be considered.|
|Appears in Collections:||D-TCA - Artigos em revistas com peer review|
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